Archive for category Uncategorized

Undo svn add operation

If you want to cancel an svn add operation, do not use svn delete or svn remove, according to this post. You can issue the following command to undo a svn add:

svn revert --recursive your_folder

This tip was very useful for me today :-)

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Checkout only one file from Subversion

I was wondering how to checkout only one folder/file from SVN when I found this interesting tip. The command I issued to do it is the following:

svn co –depth empty

The above command checkout only one versioned directory, with its content empty. Now it’s possible to add other files and directories under the directory who was checked out.

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When to use TestNG or JUnit

There is an interesting discussion between using TestNG or JUnit on Java projects at Javalobby. It’s very worth reading.

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Some interesting Maven tips

Here are some Maven tips, extracted from Javalobby:

  • Maven rf option: If your project has some modules and the build fails at one of them, it’s possible to run the build only at this module, preventing from running the entire build. You can achieve this behavior by executing this command:
  • mvn -rf my-project clean install

  • Maven pl option: This option allows you to build specific modules instead of building all projects. You can execute the following command to have this behavior:
  • mvn -pl my-project-A,my-project-B clean install

    This command will build only my-project-A and my-project-B.

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Maven Eclipse plugin using project dependencies

Some months ago I was noting the behavior of the Maven Eclipse plugin during the eclipse:eclipse goal.

I realized that its default behavior is to build the dependencies based on the Eclipse projects instead of the installed packages on the repository. During development time, it’s the behavior we need, but if you want to build the Eclipse files using the packages on the repository, you have to use the following command:

mvn eclipse:eclipse -Declipse.useProjectReferences=false

By default, the useProjectReferences flag is set to true, in other words, the plugin will create and reference the projects in Eclipse. Without it you’ll have to use mvn install to make changes available for dependent projects. Very interesting to note.

Update *: After creating the project dependencies, you have to execute mvn install to make it available for mvn eclipse:eclipse on dependent projects for the first time.

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Configuration classes with Enums

As I mentioned on my previous post, an alternative implementation to create Singleton in Java is with Enum types.

Extending the idea, it is interesting to create classes which read configuration values from Properties files with Enum classes. Below is an example:

public enum Configuration {


    private static Properties properties;
    static {
        properties = new Properties();
        try {
        } catch (Exception e) {
            throw new RuntimeException("Error when loading configuration file", e);

    private String key;

    Configuration(String key) {
        this.key = key;

    public String getKey() {
        return key;

    public String getValue() {
        return properties.getProperty(key);

Configuration classes which read values from properties files should be Singletons that are loaded once on the application startup time.

The Configuration values can be used this way:


This example shows that the key and value from properties are stored with Enum constants. They are type-safe, they can be easily accessed through code completion in your favourite IDE and they can take advantage of refactoring tools.

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Singleton in Java with Enum types

Java 1.5 introduced the concept of Enum types. They are type-safe constants, which implements equals(), hashCode() and cannot be extended. Each constant can have attributes and override an abstract method created on each Enum class.

Although Singletons are not encouraged, the best way to create it is using Enum types. Here is an example:

public enum Singleton {

    public void sayHello() {
	   System.out.println("Hello World!");

And then you call it this way:


Using Enums to create Singletons brings the serialization mechanism already bundled in the Enum type. This technique is described on the Effective Java Second Edition book by Joshua Block.

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Java-Quiz: The Iterator Quiz

Danilo sent us an interesting Java-Quiz from the Java Specialists’ Newsletter created by Olivier Croisier. You have to insert your corrective code in place of the //FIXME comment, following these instructions:

  1. Do not modify his existing code, it’s Perfect (of course).
  2. The FIXME tag shows where you’re allowed to insert your corrective code
  3. He must be able to understand your solution when he comes back (so using Reflection is not an option).

Can you find a solution for it?

final List list = new ArrayList() {{ 
final Iterator iterator = list.iterator();
// FIXME : work here while I'm sunbathing

Later I’ll post my attempt to solve it.

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Eclipse Log4J template

My friend Bruno sent me an interesting tip on how to create a Log4J template at Eclipse. Just follow these steps:

  1. Go to Window > Preferences > Java > Editor > Templates
  2. Click New
  3. Write the string logger at the field Name (this name will be used to call the template)
  4. At the field Pattern, write the following:

    private static final Logger LOGGER = Logger.getLogger(${enclosing_type}.class);

  5. Click OK

The variable ${enclosing_type} refers to the enclosing type name. When you are ready, write down logger on the field class declaration to have a logger added to the class.

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Using Hamcrest and JUnit

Lately I started using the core Hamcrest matchers bundled with the JUnit framework to create more readable unit tests.

Hamcrest matchers were created to improve the readability of unit testing code. It’s a framework which facilitates the creation of matcher objects to match rules specified in unit tests. Some examples will let it to be clearer:

   1 import static org.hamcrest.CoreMatchers.equalTo;
   2 import static;
   3 import static org.junit.Assert.assertThat;
   5 @Test
   6 public void shouldBeTheSamePerson()
   7 {
   8     Person me = new Person( "Rafael" );
   9     Person theOther = new Person( "Rafael" );
  10     assertThat( me, is( theOther ) );
  11 }
  13 @Test
  14 public void shouldHaveFixedSizeNumbers()
  15 {
  16     List<Integer> numbers = Arrays.asList( 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 );
  17     assertThat( numbers.size(), is( equalTo( 5 ) ) );
  18 }

The first example checks if one Person object is equal to another using the Object equals method, which was overridden in the Person class. The is syntax defines a matcher which is a shorthand to is(equalTo(value)). The second one uses the is(equalTo(value)) matcher to check the size of an integer list of fixed size numbers. The assertThat method is used in conjunction with the is(equalTo(value)) matcher, which makes the test sentence very human readable.

An interesting thing is the possibility to create a custom matcher, like this one which tests if a given list only has even numbers:

   1 public class AreEvenNumbers extends TypeSafeMatcher<Collection<Integer>> {
   3     @Override
   4     public boolean matchesSafely(Collection<Integer> numbers) {
   5         for (Integer number : numbers) {
   6             if (number % 2 != 0) {
   7                 return false;
   8             }
   9         }
  10         return true;
  11     }
  13     @Override
  14     public void describeTo(Description description) {
  15         description.appendText("even numbers");
  16     }
  18     @Factory
  19     public static <T> Matcher<Collection<Integer>> evenNumbers() {
  20         return new AreEvenNumbers();
  21     }
  22 }

And below are two tests which uses the AreEvenNumbers custom matcher:

   1 import static;
   2 import static org.junit.Assert.assertThat;
   3 import static;
   5 @Test
   6 public void shouldHaveOnlyEvenNumbers()
   7 {
   8     List<Integer> numbers = Arrays.asList( 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 );
   9     assertThat( numbers, is( evenNumbers() ) );
  10 }
  12 @Test
  13 public void shouldNotHaveOddNumbers()
  14 {
  15     List<Integer> numbers = Arrays.asList( 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 );
  16     assertThat( numbers, not( evenNumbers() ) );
  17 }

These two tests use the static factory method evenNumbers to instantiate the matcher on the test code. Not the use of the not matcher on the shouldNotHaveOddNumbers test to assert that no odd numbers are present on the given list. All tests use the static import feature, which turns the test not clean and not cluttered with the class qualification.

I haven’t experienced the other common matchers on unit testing code, like the Beans, Collections and Number ones. I think they turn the tests more readable, clean and easy to change. And you? Have you ever used Hamcrest matcher? If you have other examples of using it, post them here!

Updated: Static imports were added to the testing code.

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