Open minds leads to freedom

Communicating my thoughts on software development

Converting a Map to a List in Java 8, Groovy and Ruby

Posted by rnaufal on 16th July 2016

Some days ago I was developing a task on a Gradle project and I faced with a situation where I had to convert a Map < String, List < String >> to List < Pair >, each pair containing the key and one element from the List.

I decided to compare the solution in three different languages: Java 8 (using lambdas and the Streams API), Groovy and Ruby to see how concise and expressive they would be. Then, I created the Groovy code and it looked like this:

#!/usr/bin/env groovy

def map = ["a" : ["1", "2", "3"], "b" : ["4", "5", "6"], "c" : ["7"]]

println map.collectMany { key, values -> values.collect {value -> [key, value]}}

Running the above code, the result is below:

[[a, 1], [a, 2], [a, 3], [b, 4], [b, 5], [b, 6], [c, 7]]

The Ruby version looked like this:

#!/usr/bin/env ruby

map = { "a" => ["1", "2", "3"], "b" => ["4", "5", "6"], "c" => ["7"] }

p map.collect {|key, values| values.map {|value| [key, value] } }.flatten(1)

The Ruby program generated the following output:

[["a", "1"], ["a", "2"], ["a", "3"], ["b", "4"], ["b", "5"], ["b", "6"], ["c", "7"]]

Below is the Java 8 version, using lambdas, Streams and the Collectors API:

        Map< String, List < String >> values = new HashMap<>();
        values.put("a", Arrays.asList("1", "2", "3"));
        values.put("b", Arrays.asList("4", "5", "6"));
        values.put("c", Collections.singletonList("7"));

        List< Pair > result = values.
                entrySet().
                stream().
                collect(ArrayList< Pair >::new,
                        (pairs, entry) -> entry.
                                getValue().
                                stream().
                                forEach(value ->
                                        pairs.add(new Pair(entry.getKey(), value))), List< Pair >::addAll);

private static class Pair {

    private final String first;
    private final String second;

    public Pair(String first, String second) {
        this.first = first;
        this.second = second;
    }

    @Override
    public String toString() {
        return new StringBuilder("Pair{")
                .append("first='")
                .append(first).append('\'')
                .append(", second='")
                .append(second)
                .append('\'')
                .append('}')
                .toString();
    }
}

Running the Java 8 version produced the following output:

[Pair{first='a', second='1'}, Pair{first='a', second='2'}, 
Pair{first='a', second='3'}, Pair{first='b', second='4'}, 
Pair{first='b', second='5'}, Pair{first='b', second='6'}, Pair{first='c', second='7'}]

The Groovy and Ruby version are very expressive and concise. Note the use of the collectMany method on the Groovy version and the use of the flatten method on the Ruby version to flatten the result list into a single list of pairs.
The Java 8 version made use of the collect method of the Stream API, to collect the results in a list of Pair instances, each one holding the key and value of each element from the List< String >.

What do you think about this comparison? Leave your comments here!

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Posted in arrays, groovy, java, java8, lambdas, programming, ruby | 2 Comments »

K Palindromes puzzle

Posted by rnaufal on 3rd September 2013

Here we have the K Palindromes puzzle from Javalobby:

You probably already know what a palindrome is: a string to results in the same word, whether read left to right, or right to left. A K Palindrome is when a string can be tranformed into a palindrome by changing K characters at most. Regular palindromes have K=0.

Your challenge today is to write a method which takes a string and a value for k and returns true if it the string qualifies as a K palindrome.

Below is the code in Ruby. Our input string is omississimo and it’s a 0 palindrome String.

def isKPalindrome(s, k)
	chars = s.chars.to_a
	limit = chars.size - 1
	count = chars[0...chars.size / 2].each_index.count {|i| !chars[i].eql?(chars[limit - i])}
	k == count ? true : false
end

puts(isKPalindrome("omississimo", 0)) #true

The output is true. Do you have another solution? Drop your comments here!

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Posted in code, languages, palindrome, programming, puzzle, ruby, string | No Comments »

Minimum difference puzzle in Ruby

Posted by rnaufal on 28th August 2013

Folks, here we are for another puzzle from Javalobby:

Given two arrays, sorted and exactly the same length, write a function that finds a pair of numbers – one from each of the arrays – such that the difference between both is as small as possible.

Suppose our input arrays are [1,2,3,4,5] and [6,7,8,9,10]. Below is my solution in Ruby, it’s a one liner code :-):

[1,2,3,4,5].product([6,7,8,9,10]).map {|x, y| [x, y, (x-y).abs]}.sort { |a, b| a.last<=> b.last }.first.take(2)

The output is [5, 6].

Have another solution? Leave your comments here!

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Posted in arrays, code, languages, programming, puzzle, ruby | No Comments »

Balancing arrays puzzle in Ruby

Posted by rnaufal on 23rd August 2013

Here we are for another puzzle from Javalobby:

Given an array of numbers, return the index at which the array can be balanced by all numbers on the left side add up the the sum of all numbers of the right side.

For example, an array with [1,5,6,7,9,10] can be balanced by splitting the array at position 4

Here is the solution in Ruby:

v=[1,5,6,7,9,10];sum = v.reduce(:+);count=0;index = (0...v.size).detect { |i| count += v[i]; count * 2 == sum};index == nil ? nil : index + 1

The input array [1,5,6,7,9,10] will split the array at position 4, as stated above.

Any other solutions? Drop comments here 🙂

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Posted in arrays, code, languages, programming, puzzle, ruby | No Comments »

Finding the second highest frequency

Posted by rnaufal on 11th August 2013

It’s been a long time since I posted for the last time, but I promise I’ll try to keep this blog up-to-date 🙂

One of the purposes of this blog is to explore new technologies and recently I’ve been studying Ruby solving some puzzles posted by on JavaLobby.

The problem is about finding the second highest frequency of a character in a String. Below is the Ruby code, using the powerful concept of Ruby closures.

v="aabbbc".chars;h=Hash[v.map{|k| [k, v.count(k)] }];max=h.values.max;found=h.select { |k, v| v < max};found.keys.first if found

For the input String "aabbbc", the result is "a". I could done it in a more OOP style, but I chose a more concise solution 🙂

If you have another version in Ruby, feel free to post a comment!

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Posted in code, languages, programming, puzzle, ruby | No Comments »

"Salute #{@Ruby}!"

Posted by rnaufal on 21st May 2009

Some times ago I had to parse a XML messages’ file to produce some i18n properties files.

I decided to try it with Ruby, mainly because of two reasons:

  1. I’m continuosly exploring some dynamically-typed languages, like Python and Ruby
  2. I wanted to try the conciseness of programming with closures

So, I used the REXML API to process the XML file. The result code looks like the one below:

   1:require 'rexml/document'
   2:include REXML
   3:englishFile = File.new('englishFileName', 'w+')
   4:spanishFile = File.new('spanishFileName', 'w+')
   5:portugueseFile = File.new('portugueseFileName', 'w+')
   6:errorMessagesFile = File.new("errorMessages.xml")
   7:document = Document.new(file)
   8:root = document.root
   9:root.each_element("Property") do |propertyTag|
  10:  id = propertyTag.attributes['id']   
  11:  propertyTag.each_element("element") do |elementTag|
  12:      elementAttr = elementTag.attributes['otherTag']
  13:      error = elementTag.text == nil ? "" : "#{id} = #{elementTag.text}\n"
  14:      if elementAttr = "pt"
  15:          portugueseFile << error
  16:      elsif elementAttr == "es"
  17:          spanishFile << error
  18:      else 
  19:          portugueseFile << error
  20:      end
  21:  end
  22:end
  23:errorMessagesFile.close()
  24:englishFile.close()
  25:spanishFile.close()
  26:portugueseFile.close()
  27:  

I like to solve this kind of tasks with programming languages (mainly the dynamically-typed ones..) I don’t know very much because it’s an opportunity to put my hands on them! This way I could experience Ruby’s closures syntax, it was really nice and I’m gonna try something new with it often!

*Updated: line 13

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Posted in Uncategorized | 4 Comments »

Twitter on Scala Interview

Posted by rnaufal on 27th April 2009

There is a nice interview with the Twitter development team on Artima about using Scala in production on Twitter code. The team talks about some issues and facilities regarding the chose of Scala to develop Twitter’s queueing system and how Scala affected the team’s programming style.

My personal highlights:

And Ruby, like many scripting languages, has trouble being an environment for long lived processes. But the JVM is very good at that, because it’s been optimized for that over the last ten years..

So Scala provides a basis for writing long-lived servers…Another thing we really like about Scala is static typing that’s not painful. Sometimes it would be really nice in Ruby to say things like, here’s an optional type annotation

And because Ruby’s garbage collector is not quite as good as Java’s, each process uses up a lot of memory. We can’t really run very many Ruby daemon processes on a single machine without consuming large amounts of memory

In some cases we just decided to burrow down and use the Java collections from Scala, which is a nice advantage of Scala, that we have that option..

As I’ve learned more Scala I’ve started thinking more functionally than I did before. When I first started I would use the for expression, which is very much like Python’s. Now more often I find myself invoking map or foreach directly on iterators..

The reason you should care about immutability is that if you’re using threads and your objects are immutable, you don’t have to worry about things changing underneath you..

It’s very worth read. Post your comments here when you read it.

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Posted in Uncategorized | 4 Comments »